Hanafizadeh, P., & Behboudi, M. (2012). Advertising Agencies and Interactive Media. 10.4018/978-1-4666-0885-6.ch005.

According to Hanafizadeh and Behboudi (2012), advertising agencies play a crucial role in the production of new advertisements. The agencies require a proper level of knowledge and expertise to be able to provide efficient services. Although advertising agencies differ in the capacity and size of transactions, the advert production process is the same for all of them. They have two tasks, including procurement of advertising requirements (graphic, artistic, audiovisual, and written) and placement. Strategic placement involves efforts to identify the right exposure and space for ads. They have a role in improving a customer's mental image and interests for a brand.

Roetzer, P. (2012). The marketing agency blueprint: The handbook for building hybrid pr, SEO, content, advertising, and web firms. John Wiley & Sons.

The rapid change in modern markets accelerated by technology innovation has produced a growing need for tech-savvy, forward-thinking firms. Due to the trends and shifts in consumer behavior, business processes, communications, data analysis, marketing philosophies, and software has impacted the need for evolved services and consulting. Although change does present some challenges, it also comes with significant advancement opportunities. For instance, technology has enabled the creation of remarkably efficient agency management and client services systems that are cost-efficient but have high productivity. Roetzer (2012) says that due to the changes occurring, agencies are shifting their budgets from print advertising, cold calling, direct mail, and trade shows towards more measurable and effective inbound marketing strategies that cater to consumer needs.

Eckhardt, G., & Arvidsson, A. (2015). Ad agencies. Consumption Markets & Culture, 19. 1-5. 10.1080/10253866.2015.1079960.

Eckhardt and Arvidsson (2015) state that ad agencies have been key players in fueling contemporary consumer culture, making them crucial market icons. Due to the increase in advertising space online, advertising prices have dropped, and budgets shifted away from print media, digital, and television advertising. According to Eckhardt and Arvidsson (2015), agencies have adapted to the new advertising space by acting as 'market midwife' shepherding cultural content produced elsewhere to market. Modern marketing makes use of ordinary people’s commercial activities, placing promotional messages in Twitter feeds, and identifying influential on social platforms, among others.

Lee, P. Y. (2014). Social media challenges for advertising business and creative management in the social media era. International Journal of Research in Business Studies and Management, 1(1), 1-11.

Lee (2014) states that technological advancement has brought significant changes to advertising strategies and organizational structures of agencies. Social media has undergone massive development, which entails a wide range of communication forms, including personal blogs and sharing comments on platforms. These developments have altered the traditional marketing communication means and advertising by bringing consumers into an active sharing and interactive manner. As social media is now pivotal to survival for many brands and campaigns, agencies have been forced to become more diverse, offering individual specialties and specialties to clients.

Isayeva, A. (2011). The role of the advertising agency: Standardization/Adaptation. IBSU Scientific Journal, 5(2), 5-12.

Advertising agents' roles have a complex problem on two sides of an inter-organizational dyad; the company hiring the agency vs. the agency taking on the client company. Although businesses often strive for adjustment in their advertising strategies, they understand the need for adaptation under certain conditions. Isayeva (2011) mentions that “agencies seek to carve out their unique positioning in their competitive arena and avoid the standardized approach.” As a result, defining the agency in terms of the level of autonomy is central to managing a global advertising strategy. The role of the advertising agency is motivated by the approach of adaptation that an organization adopts, based on the company's level of knowledge of the local market, and the cultural distance between the home and local markets for that product category.

Salesforce Marketing Cloud. (2011). The social agency:  20 social media services to offer your clients. Radian6.

As technology continues to evolve, new platforms emerge, and processes and people must adapt to the changes. Modern agencies need to offer to client’s industry insights landscape to help understand social media opportunities using social media metrics and listening. According to Salesforce Marketing Cloud (2011), the metrics are useful in developing products, appropriate market positioning, possible communication channels, and potential influencers for outreach. Agencies should be able to offer an in-depth analysis of the content being disseminated through social platforms. The agency should be able to tell a brand how relevant they are to their community, how relevant their content is, where the targeted population is populated, the industry with the largest conversion share, and trending topics among the audience.

Hughes, T., & Vafeas, M. (2019). Marketing agency/client service-for-service provision in an age of digital transformation. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 26(3-4), 265-280.

Due to the emergence of digital communications, small businesses and various organizations are being forced to deal with marketing agencies. Digital communication is causing changes whereby agencies working with clients are moving further away from the traditional media in which the agency took the leading role. Clients can now decide to provide resources in-house or choose a high-level external provision (Hughes & Vafeas, 2019). Since more employees are digitally savvy, there are increased chances that clients will support marketing communication with in-house resources. There is more expertise in-house, and as well, technology is more user friendly. A client will choose an agency when they believe without a doubt that the agency will add value.

Johnson, K., D. (2017). "Social media marketing: A solution for marketing and advertising agency promotion." Master of Arts in Media and Communication Plan II Graduate Projects. 8. https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/ms_smc/8

Johnson (2017) offers tactics that small and mid-sized marketing and advertising agencies can follow to get clients. One crucial tactic is having an enticing online presence that addresses the interests of the client. As well, a strong social marketing plan is needed so that the agency can distinguish itself from the competition. They should demonstrate their differentiated though leadership and unique capabilities.

Canter, C. (2020). Tips for choosing the right digital marketing agency. https://works.bepress.com/clifford-canter/1/

Canter (2020) states that navigating the world of online marketing is challenging for most business owners. In modern digital commerce, entrepreneurs are looking for a competent and trustworthy digital partner capable of helping them manage their digital marketing needs. Thus, it is suggested that anytime you wish to market goods and services on social sites, ensure to find a professional digital marketing agency. The steps to finding the right digital agency are simple. First, you should understand your needs so that you can pick an agency that specializes in your needs. Two, you need to conduct background research to find the right web statistics that you need. It will help in finding a digital company that suits your business better.

Sinclair. J. (2015). Advertising, the media, and globalization. Media Industries Journal 1(3). 42-47

The advent of the internet has transformed the character of advertising media. Today, the healthy relationship that existed between advertisers, media, and agencies during the golden age of mass media is facing severe pressure. Sinclair (2015) states that “the interactive properties of the internet with the affordances of social networking and direct commercial transactions have precipitated a shift in the balance of power between advertisers and consumers.” Social media has given people the power to participate in ruthless parodies and spoofs of branded advertising they feel is manipulative and inauthentic. Despite this new development, advertising agencies are fascinated by the internet's ability to target consumers and exploit their social networking behavior. They plant adverts on the internet, hoping it will go viral and create a buzz around the brand.